force
an SI Tour℠

Most recent addition: 13 May 2017

Force in
yoctonewtons
 
~42 Measured at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley in 2013 

Sydney Schreppler, Nicolas Spethmann, Nathan Brahms, Thierry Botter, Maryrose Barrios and Dan M. Stamper-Kurn.
Optically measuring force near the standard quantum limit.
Science, vol. 344 no. 6191 pages 1486-1489 (27 June 2014).
doi:10.1126/science.1249850

~170 Measured at NIST, 2010.

Michael J. Biercuk, Hermann Uys, Joe W. Britton, Aaron P. VanDevender and John J. Bollinger.
Ultrasensitive force and displacement detection using trapped ions.
Nature Nanotechnology. Posted online Aug. 22, 2010. Page 6.

Force in
zeptonewtons
 
500

J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow and K. W. Lehnert.
Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit.
Nature Nanotechnology vol. 4, pages 820–823 (December 2009).
doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343

800 Smallest mechanical force measured by 2001, by Manin, Rugar et al at the IBM Almaden Research Center.

Stipe, B. C. et al. 
Magnetic dissipation and fluctuations in individual nanomagnets measured by ultrasensitive cantilever magnetometry.
Physical Review Letters, vol. 86 page 2874 (March 26 2001).

Force in
attonewtons
 
   
Force in
femtonewtons
 
   
Force in
piconewtons
 
~100 or ~120 Casimir force in a vacuum between a silicon wafer coated with an alloy of silver, indium, antimony and tellurium, and a gold sphere 100 nanometers away. The alloy is one usually used to coat rewriteable CDs, as it can be switched from a crystalline state to an amorphous state when heated by a laser. When the surface of the wafer was in the amorphous state, the Casimir force was about 100 piconewtons, but about 120 pN when the wafer was in a crystalline state. 

G. Torricelli, P. J. van Zwol, O. Shpak, C. Binns, G. Palasantzas, B. J. Kooi, V. B. Svetovoy, M. Wuttig.
Switching Casimir forces with phase change materials.
Physical Review A, vol. 82, no. 1, 010101 (2010).
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.010101

Force in
nanonewtons
 
   
Force in
micronewtons
 
   
Force in
millinewtons
 
   
Force in
newtons
 
4.5 Force needed to stretch a limp human penis to its full potential length when erect.

J. Chen, A. Gefen, A. Greenstein, H. Matzkin and D. Elqad.
Predicting penile size during erection.
International Journal of Impotence Research, vol 12, pages 328-333 (2000).

19.9 Bite force (at canines) of the stoat (Mustela erminea)

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

34.0 Bite force (at canines) of the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

73.3 Bite force (at canines) of the domestic cat.

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

121.4 Bite force (at canines) of the raccoon (Procyon lotor).

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

~195 Kick (at a rubber snake), of Madeleine, a 24-year old secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) residing at the Hawk Conservancy Trust in Hampshire, England.  

Steven J. Portugal, Campbell P. Murn, Emily L. Sparkes, Monica A. Daley.
The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.
Current Biology, vol. 26, issue 2, pR58–R59, (25 January 2016)
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.004

493.5 Bite force (at canines) of wolves

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

Force in
kilonewtons
 
1.324 Bite force (at canines) of the lion (Panthera leo).

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

1.410 Bite force (at canines) of brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

1.472 Bite force (at canines) of the tiger (Panthera tigris)
1.647 Bite force (at canines) of polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

Per Christiansen and Stephen Wroe.
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
Ecology, vol. 88, no. 3, pages 347-358 (February 2007).

2 Bite force of spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

W. J. Binder and B. V. Van Valkenburgh.
Development of bite strength and feeding behavior in juvenile spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).
Journal of Zoology vol 252, pages 273-283 (2000).
doi:10.1017/S0952836900000017.

Christiansen and Wroe, on the other hand, say it is 565.7 newtons at the canines and 985.5 N further back.

3.427 Average force exerted by 10 Olympic boxers throwing straight punches at a dummy of a head. The strongest punch, 4.741 kilonewtons, was thrown by a boxer in the Super Heavyweight class. 

T. J. Walilko, D. C. Viano and C. A. Bir.
Biomechanics of the head for Olympic boxer punches to the face.
British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 39, pages 710–719 (2005).
doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.014126

5 Most powerful bite of any known fish, Dunkleosteus terrelli, a Devonian placoderm.

Philip S. L. Anderson and Mark W. Westneat.
Feeding mechanics and bite force modeling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator.
Biology Letters. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0569

9.452 Bite force measured in American alligators.

G. M. Erickson, A. K. Lappin and K. A. Vliet.
The ontogeny of bite-force performance in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).
Journal of Zoology, London, vol 260, pages 317-327 (2003). doi:10.1017/S0952836903003819

16.414 Bite force measured in a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)

Gregory M. Erickson, Paul M. Gignac, Scott J. Steppan, A. Kristopher Lappin, Kent A. Vliet, John D. Brueggen, Brian D. Inouye, David Kledzik and Grahame J. W. Webb.
Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation.
PLoS ONE 7(3): e31781. (2012)
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031781

57 Bite force of Tyrannosaurus rex (Estimated)

K. T. Bates and P. L. Falkingham.
Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.
Biology Letters, vol. 8 no. 4, pages 660-664 (23 August 2012)
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0056

350 Thrust of the Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle.
Force in
meganewtons
 
1.001 Thrust of the S-IVB, the final stage of the Saturn V rocket.
5.1 Thrust of the S-II, second stage of the Saturn V rocket, in vacuum.
7.08 Thrust at liftoff of China's Long March 7 rocket.
34.8 Sea level thrust of the S-IC, first stage of the Apollo 15 Saturn V rocket. 135 seconds after launch, just before shut down, it achieved 40.8 MN.
Force in
giganewtons
 
   
Force in
teranewtons
 
   
Force in
petanewtons
 
   
Force in
exanewtons
 
   
Force in
zettanewtons
 
   
Force in
yottanewtons
 
   

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