Lie is the angle between the shaft and the ground. Lie is called “upright” if the shaft is more vertical than usual; “flat” if less; the range of variation is about ±2°. A lie that is too great for the player can result in shots to the left of the target; if the lie is too flat for the player, shots may go to the right.
is the angle between the face of the club and the vertical. A player with a low handicap will probably prefer several degrees less loft in a driver than the average golfer.
Loft describes the vertical tilt of the club face; face angle
describes a horizontal tilt in woods.
If the face “faces” straight ahead; the face angle is zero, or square.
If it faces left; it is “open”.
If it faces away from the golfer, it is “closed” (or “hooked”).
To a person addressing the ball, the face appears to be about 2° more hooked than it really is.
The face of a wood is curved in two directions, like the surface on the rim of a doughnut. The amount of curvature is described by two radiuses. Face bulge is measured in a horizontal plane and face roll in a vertical plane. Values are from 7 inches to 20 inches in steps of ½ inch; a typical value for a #1 wood is 9½ or 10 inches.
A physicist has done a mathematical analysis of the effect of this curve, and concludes that the curve tends to drive the ball in the opposite direction from the curvature due to the ball's spin, which comes from hitting it offcenter. As a result, the ball is more likely to go straight. He also concluded that golfers who hit the ball hard benefit from a more deeply curved head.
A. Raymond Penner.
The physics of golf: The convex face of a driver.
American Journal of Physics, volume 69, page 1073 (October 2001).
In some clubs the shaft is ahead of the head; the hosel curves back to meet the head.
USGA rules regulate the size of grooves on the club face. They may be no deeper than 0.020 inch and no wider than 0.035 inch, and the flat area between grooves must be at least three times the groove width or 0.075 inch, whichever is smaller.
The following tables give some idea of the ranges of values these parameters can take in a set of clubs. These are not ideal values; that depends on the player and his or her game. Golf pros and club shops are happy to take measurements, analyze swings, and make recommendations.
Woods 
#1  #2  #3  #4  #5  #6  #7  #8  #9  #11  

Loft 
9°–12°  14°  15°–17°  20°  21°–24°  24°  26°  29°  32°  35°  
Lie 
Flat 
53°  54°  55°  
Std. 
55°  54°  56°  56°  57°  56°  58°  58.5°  59°  60°  
Up. 
57°  58°  59°  
Face Angle  +1°  +1°  +1°  +1°  ±1°  ±1°  ±1°  
Typ. head weight (grams) 
200  210  220  228  231  240  240 
Metal Woods  #1  #2  spoon  #3  #4  #5  #7  #8  #9  #11  

Loft  Flat 
7°  12°–13°  16°  19°  22°  25°–26°  29°  32°  35°  
Std. 
10°  12°  13°  
Deep 
12°  13°  28°  
Lie  Flat 
53°  54°  55°  
Std. 
55°  56°  56.5°  57°  58°  58.5°  59°  60°  
Up. 
57°  58°  59°  
Face Angle  +1°–2°  +1°  +1°  +1.5°  +1°  +2°  +2°  ±1°  ±1°  ±1°  
Typ. wt* (grams)  202  210  220  228  231  240  240 
Metal woods are also made in another sequence of sizes which are about 25 grams heavier in each size.
Irons  #1  #2  #3  #4  #5  #6  #7  #8  #9  pitch wedge  sand wedge*  

Loft 
16°– 17° 
18°– 20° 
21°– 24° 
24°– 27° 
28°– 31° 
32°– 35° 
36°– 39° 
40°– 43° 
44°– 47° 
48°– 51° 
54°– 56° 

Lie  Flat  54°  55°  56°  57°  58°  59°  60°  61°  62°  62°  62° 
Std.  56°  57°  58°  59°  60°  61°  62°  63°  64°  64°  64°  
Up.  58°  59°  60°  61°  62°  63°  64°  65°  66°  66°  66°  
Offset  5  4.5  4  3.5  3  2.5  2  1.5  1  1  .5  
Weight (g)  229  236  243  250  257  264  271  278  285  292  304 
*Beyond the sand wedge lie other irons, often called lob wedges, with lofts of 60° or 64°.
From most flexible to most rigid, the grades are L (ladies or light), A (average), R (regular), (some makers add F, firm, after R), S (stiff), and XS (extra stiff). The more powerful the player, the stiffer the required shaft.
Shafts for woods have diameters of 0.270", 0.277", 0.286", 0.294", and 0.320", all of which are tapered, and a 0.335" parallel tip. For irons, shafts are available in a 0.355" taper tip and a 0.370" parallel tip.
From 0.560 inch to 0.620 inch in 0.020 inch increments, and also 0.700".
Grips are sized by shaft diameters. Those for shafts with smaller diameters have thicker walls than those for thicker shafts, so that each shaft plus its matching grip comes out the standard size. If a grip is installed on a shaft larger than it was intended for, its installed diameter will be oversize. The club maker can also enlarge the grip by wrapping the shaft with masking tape before installing the grip. A very small increase–¹⁄_{32} or even ¹⁄_{64} inch–can make a difference. A grip that is too large can cause a player to slice; too small, to hook. Special grips are available for players with arthritis.
Total weight is important, but so is how the weight is distributed over the length of head and shaft. Swingweight describes this distribution. Two swingweight systems are in use, one using a fulcrum 12 inches from the butt of the shaft, and the other with the fulcrum at 14 inches.
The maximum weight is 1.62 ounces. In the United States, the minimum diameter is 1.68 inches; but under the rules of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, Scotland, which apply in much of the world, the minimum diameter is 1.62 inches.
The standard tee is 2 ¹⁄_{8} inches (5.4 cm) long. 1^{5}⁄_{8} inch, 1 ^{7}⁄_{8} inch and 2¾ inch tees are also made.
The hole is 4¼ inches (10.8 cm) in diameter and at least 4 inches (10.2 cm) deep. If it is lined, the uppermost part of the liner must be at least 1 inch below the surface of the putting green.
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Last revised: 28 January 2003.