Rulers in China:
Ming Dynasty

In contrast with earlier dynasties, the rulers of the Ming used a single reign title for their entire reign, with the exception of Ying Zong, who was restored. The dynastic title (miao hao, temple name) was assigned posthumously. The personal names of the emperors were never used; in fact, writing or speaking it was forbidden.  

Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644
Reign
Dates
Reign Title,
nien hao
Dynastic Title,
miao hao
Relation to
predecessor
Comments
1368–1398 洪武
Hongwu
Hong He
[Hung Ho]
(Chu Yüan-chang)
Tai Zu    
1399–1402 建文
Jianwen
Hui Di grandson  
1403–1424 永樂
Yongli
Cheng Zu son of Tai Zu  
1425 洪熙
Hongxi
Ren Zong son  
1426–1435 宣德
Xuande
Xuan Zong son  
1436–1449 正統
Zhengtong
Ying Zong son Captured in battle, 1449.
1450–1457 景泰
Jingtai
Jing Di brother Deposed. Died 1457.
1457–1464 天順
Tianshun
Ying Zong restoration  
1465–1487 成化
Chenghua
Xian Zong son  
1488–1505 弘治
Hongzhi
Xiao Zong son  
1506–1521 正德
Zhengde
Wun Tsung son  
1522–1567 嘉靖
Jiajing
Shěh Tsung grandson of
Xian Zong
 
1567–1572 隆慶
Longqing
Mu Zong son  
1573–1620 萬歷
Wanli
Shêh Tsung son  
1620 泰昌
Tai Zhang
Guang Zong son  
1621–1627 天啟
Tianqi
Xi Zong son  
1628–1644 崇禎
Chongzhen
Zhuang-lie Di brother  

 

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