Ireland
units of capacity

In Ireland before 1826 Irish both dry and liquid units of capacity , , are based on the Irish gallon of 217.6 cubic inches. Grain is measured in various barrels and a quarter which is defined by weight

Liquid Measure
                         

tun

                     

pipe or butt

2

                   

puncheon

3

                 

hogshead

1¹⁄₃

2

4

           

tierce or awme

2

3

6

             

ale barrel

²¹⁄₂₀

⁶³⁄₄₀

²¹⁄₁₀

⁶³⁄₂₀

⁶³⁄₁₀

         

wine barrel

⁸⁰⁄₆₃

1¹⁄₃

2

2²⁄₃

4

8

         

rundlet

2²⁄₉

3

6

9

18

       

gallon

18

31½

40

42

63

84

126

252

     

pottle

2

36

63

80

84

126

168

252

504

   

quart

2

4

72

126

160

168

252

336

504

1008

 

pint

2

4

8

144

252

320

336

504

672

1008

2016

 

naggin

4

8

16

32

576

1008

1280

1344

2016

2688

4032

8064

cubic inches

6.8

27.2

54.4

108.8

217.6

3916.8

6854.4

8704.0

9139.2

13,708.8

18,278.4

27,417.6

54,835.2

liters

0.11

0.45

0.89

1.78

3.56

64.18

112.3

142.6

149.7

224.6

299.5

449.3

898.6

The exceedingly awkward fractional ratios between the ale barrel and the larger units, here called out in pink, are a sign of a collision between two systems of units, the native ale and the wine. a separte set of ale measures for quatities larger than the gallon. the tun of ale is the only case in Ireland of a commodity-specific unit of liquid capacity.

Ale Measure
         

tun of ale

       

barrel

8

     

kilderkin

2

16

   

firkin

2

4

32

 

gallon

10

20

40

320

cubic inches

217.6

2176

4352

8704

69,632

liters

3.56

35.65

71.3

142.6

1141

Dry Measures
                       

last

                     

wey

2

                   

chaldron

                 

quarter

4

5

10

               

barrel

2

8

10

20

             

strike

2

4

16

20

40

           

bushel

2

4

8

32

40

80

         

peck

4

8

16

32

128

160

320

       

gallon

2

8

16

32

64

256

320

640

     

pottle

2

4

16

32

64

128

512

640

1280

   

quart

2

4

8

32

64

128

256

1024

1280

2560

 

pint

2

4

8

16

64

128

256

512

2048

4096

8192

cubic inches

27.2

54.4

108.8

217.6

435.2

1740.8

3481.6

6963.2

13,926.4

55705.6

69,632

139,264

liters

0.45

0.89

1.78

3.56

7.13

28.53

57.05

114.11

228.21

912.85

1141.06

2282.13

Coal

The measures for capacity used for coal were set by an Act of 1st Geo II (1727), and are in Winchester, not Irish, gallons. The dimensions of the measures were also specified.

Coal Measures
  Diameter
of bottom,
inches
Minimum
diameter
of top,
inches
Capacity,
winchester
gallons
Half peck 10½ 11½
Peck 11 12
Half bushel 15 16 5
Bushel 20 21 10
Half barrel 24 25¼ 20

Grain

Grain was measured in barrels which were defined by weight, not capacity, and varied by commodity. 2 barrels = 1 quarter.

By an Act of Queen Anne, all meal and flour was to be sold by weight; and the law was extended in the reign of George the second, to all corn in general; forty stone of wheat and rye, twenty-four of barley, twenty-two of oats, and twenty of malt, being made equivalent to a quarter.

First Report of the Commissioners appointed to consider the subject of Weights and Measures, 1819, page 11.

Grain: By Weight instead of Capacity
Commodity weight of 1 barrel
in stones in pounds av.
Flour 14¼ 199.5
Meslin, peas, rye, beans, wheat 20 280
Bere or barley 16 224
Oats 14 196
Oatmeal 8 112
Malt 12 168

Sources: Wakefield (1812), page 197.

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