See also libbra, but most of the units that have been spelled either way are on this page.

- Units of mass
- 1. Ancient Rome
- 2. Spain
- 3. Colombia
- 4. Dominican Republic and El Salvador (for El Salvador, compare def. 10)
- 5. Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde Islands, Paraguay
- 6. Argentina
- 7. Patras, Greece
- 8. Costa Rica
- 9. Chile
- 10. Cuba and El Salvador
- 11. Ecuador
- Units of capacity
- 12. Spain
- 13. Rome

In Rome and the Roman Empire, a unit of mass, from the
mid-19^{th} century taken to be about
327.45 grams. This magnitude comes from Böckh's *Metrologische Untersuchungen,* repeated in the Preface
of Theodor Mommsen's influential *Römische Geschichte* (1854-56) and then by Hultsch.

I have always been interested in the weight of the Roman/Byzantine pound, and in particular in the fact that the best known estimate, namely the one used by Mommsen (327.45 grams), is always quoted to two decimal places. What was so special about this particular value, which many people take as gospel, I thought, and so I finally decided to find out just where this figure came from.

In fact Mommsen got his figure from Böckh's *Metrologische Untersuchungen über Gewichte, etc…*of 1838 (see Mommsen's *Geschichte des römischer Münzwesens* (*History of Roman Coinage* - available on-line), p. xix).

So where did Böckh get his figure? Well, it turns out to be basically an average value derived from a rather mixed bag of just 54 gold coins, as detailed on pp. 164 & 165 of his book.

Actually, Böckh first quotes five heavy stone weights from Herculaneum with 10 lb equivalent weights ranging from 3232 to 3285 grams (there were four 10-lb and one 2-lb weights). The average weight for 1 lb was then 325.88 grams (= 6135.39 Paris Grains), with a standard error (my calculation) of 1.08 grams (I'll keep the 2 decimal places for the moment).

In fact, although Böckh first says these weights were all well preserved, he then says two of them were worn – leaving these out I find a mean 1-pound weight of 326.77 gram with a standard error of 0.88 gram.

He then turns to estimates by others based on gold coins. He quotes a value for the pound of 6154 Paris Grains calculated by Letronne from data on some unspecified gold coins, and also another somewhat different figure, apparently derived from an analysis by Paucker of the same data, of 6165 Paris Grains (= 327.45 grams).

It seems that Böckh himself then calculates, using 27 varying gold pieces of the “Free States”(the same data as Letronne's I think), a pound weight of 6167.16 Paris Grains.

Finally, he calculates a value of 6162.93 Paris Grains from 27 “Constantinian”solidi, and then averages this figure with the previous one to give 6165.04 Paris Grains. (One might well quibble with averaging figures from seemingly very different periods, but there we have it).

At this point Böckh settles on a round figure of 6165 Paris Grains for the pound, i.e, 327.45 grams.

No error estimate is given but from my own experience with solidi and other gold coins the standard deviation in the distribution of the weights in the sample would be around 1%; for the equivalent pound weight, this would amount to circa 3 grams. For a combined sample of 54 items, as used by Böckh, the standard error of the calculated mean would then be circa 0.4 gram.

Thus we have Mommsen's famous estimate of the pound, and now also a reasonable idea of its relative accuracy.

I must also say though that my calculations with gold coins always give rather lower figures for the pound – circa 322 grams for Mars Eagle types, and 319-321 grams for solidi. Why Böckh got such high values I can't say.

Curiously, we note that although Mommsen gives 327.45 grams in
his main work (*The History of Rome*), in his *History of Roman Coinage* he gives 327.43 grams (p. xix & p. 900) — why this tiny difference I don't know.

I don't know what Böckh included in his 27 gold coins of the “Free States”, but I have ten Oath Scene types of various sizes in my files, with equivalent pound weights ranging from 321.1 to 331.2 grams. Working from these coins gives a mean weight for the pound of 327.0 grams, with a standard deviation of 2.7 grams and a standard error in the mean of 0.9 gram.

It would seem that these types at least were struck on a fairly heavy weight standard. But how Böckh got his heavy estimate of 6162.9 Paris Grains (= 327.3 grams) for solidi I can't understand - a quick survey of the weights of solidi in the CNG archives shows almost no coins weighing more than 4.50 grams, equivalent to a pound of 324.0 grams.

J. R. Glanfield

A post on the blog Moneta-L, 24 and 26 January 2014, reprinted by permission.

In correspondence, Mr. Glanfield pointed out that

“In respect of the stone weights, it's also worth noting that Boeckh chose to
work with only five selected examples with a narrow range of 1 lb equivalent
weights, although he also lists dozens of weights (in both stone and metal,
and from various periods), which show a much wider range of individual 1 lb
equivalent weights.

“Note also that Boeckh's calculations of the weight of the pound from gold
coins presumably assume no seigniorage, as do my own estimates.”

Google has digitized both of the books cited:

Mommsen, https://books.google.com/books?id=1AgPAAAAQAAJ

Böckh: https://books.google.com/books?id=G0MGAAAAQAAJ

…Sp. Maelium, cui tribunatus plebis magis optandus quam sperandus fuerit, frumentarium divitem, bilibris farris sperasse libertatem se civium suorum emisse, ciboque obiciendo ratum victorem finitimorum omnium populum in servitutem perlici posse…

Titus Livy.

*History of Rome*, Book 4, 15.

[6] that Spurius Maelius, to whom a tribuneship of the commons should rather be an object of wishes than of hope, a wealthy corn-merchant, had conceived the hope to purchase the liberty of his countrymen for two pounds of corn; had supposed that a people victorious over all their neighbours could be cajoled into servitude by throwing them a morsel of food;

Translation by D. Spillan.

London: Bohn, 1857.

To ilustrate the use of the *
libra* with prefixes to indicate multiples and submultiples.

In Spain, ? – 20th centuries, a
unit of mass, varying locally, but the * libra* most commonly used was the Castillian* libra* (*libra de Castilla*), about 460.093 grams, (approximately 1.014 pounds avoirdupois). This is the origin of the value of the *libra*, 20th century, in Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru.

The table below shows values of the * libra* in Spain in the mid-19^{th} century.

Province | Name of unit | Size,¹ grams |
---|---|---|

Alava | libra | 460.093 |

Albacete | libra | 458 |

Alicante | libra | 533 |

Almeria | libra | 460.093 |

Ávila | libra | 460.093 |

Badajoz | libra | 460.093 |

Baleares (Palma) | libra | 407 |

Barcelona | libra | 400 |

libra medicinal | 300 | |

Burgos | libra | 460.093 |

Cáceres | libra | 456 |

Cádiz | libra | 460.093 |

Canarias | libra | 460.093 |

Castellón | libra | 358 |

Ciudad-Real | libra | 460.093 |

Córdoba | libra | 460.093 |

Coruña | libra | 575 |

Cuenca | libra | 460.093 |

Gerona | libra | 400 |

Granada | libra | 460.093 |

Guadalajara | libra | 460.093 |

Guipúzcoa | libra | 492 |

Huelva | libra | 460.093 |

Huesca | libra | 351 |

Jaén | libra | 460.093 |

León | libra | 460.093 |

Lérida | libra | 401 |

Logroño | libra | 460.093 |

Lugo | libra | 573 |

Madrid | libra | 460.093 |

Málaga | libra | 460.093 |

Murcia | libra | 460.093 |

Navarra | libra | 372 |

Orense | libra | 574 |

Oviedo | libra | 460.093 |

Palencia | libra | 460.094 |

Pamplona | libra | 372 |

Pontevedra | libra | 579 |

Salamanca | libra | 460.093 |

Santander | libra | 460.093 |

Segóvia | libra | 460.093 |

Sevilla | libra | 460.093 |

Soria | libra | 460.093 |

Tarragona | libra de Gerona | 400 |

Teruel | libra | 367 |

Toledo | libra | 460.093 |

Valencia | libra (but see below) | 355 |

Valladolid | libra | 460.093 |

Vizcaya (Bilbao) | libra | 488 |

Zamora | libra | 460.093 |

Zaragoza | libra | 350 |

Even this oversimplifies the situation. Consider just Valencia. According to
Doursther², there were four * libra* in use in Valencia:

- the
*libra sutil*,*libra menor*, or*libreta*, according to one determination 355.3 grams and according to another exactly 356 grams. This was the everyday*libra*of commerce and is the one in the table above. It was subdivided into 12*onzas*, like the Roman*libra*. - the
*libbra gruesa*or*libra mayor*, of 18*onzas*, used for salted fish, calfskin, leather for the soles of shoes, and so on, about 532.5 grams (taking the*libra sutil*as 355 grams). - a
*libra*for saffron and other spices, of 16*onzas*, about 473.3 grams. - a
*libra*of 36*onzas*for bread and other foodstuffs, about 1065 grams.

1. *Gaceta.* Madrid, 28 December 1852. Official figures.

Dirección General del Instituto Geográfico y Estadístico.

*Equivalencias entre las Pesas y Medidas Usadas Antiguamente en las Diversas
Provincias de España y las Legales del Sistema Métrico-Decimal.*

Publicadas de Real Orden.

Madrid: Imprenta de la Dirección General del Instituto Geográfica y Estadístico,
1886.

2. Doursther, page 233.

In Colombia, 20^{th}
century, a unit of mass = 16 onzas = 500 grams
(approximately 1.1012 pounds). An example of seeking round values in the course
of metrication.

United Nations, 1966.

In the Dominican Republic and El Salvador,
20^{th} century, = 1 pound avoirdupois (approximately 453.592
grams). An example of the name of an old unit taking on a value from a new
trading system.

United Nations, 1966.

In Portugal, ? – 19^{th}
century, a unit of mass, approximately 459 grams (approximately 1.012
pounds avoirdupois). Also called an arratel.

From Portugal the unit spread to Brazil , 16 – 19^{th} centuries, and survived to the 20th century¹ in the Cape Verde Islands and Paraguay.

1. United Nations, 1966.

In Argentina, a unit of mass, = 16 *onza*, about
459.35 grams (about 1.0127 pounds avoirdupois). On 18
December 1835, the city of Buenos Aires defined the *libra* as the
weight of 33 cubic *pulgadas* of distilled water at its maximum density.¹

The *libra de boticario*, however, was different; according to the
Treasury Ministry in
1879, 344.55 grams, which is 12 of the standard *
onza* of Buenos Aires.

1. Juan Alvarez, page 154.

In Patras in the Peloponnese, Greece,
19^{th} century, a unit of capacity determined by mass, used for
oil and honey, a nineteenth of a barile, about 3.064
kilograms (6.775 pounds avoidupois).

Doursther page 208.

In Costa Rica, = 460.0627 grams, divided into 16 *
onzas*. (In apothecary’s weight, however, the * libra* was 345.04704
grams and divided into 12 *onzas*. Apothecary’s weight was already out of
use in Costa Rica in the 19th century.) In modern
times, = 460 grams.

[Costa Rica. Ministerio de formento.]

*Medidas y pesas del sistema métrico, y tablas de equivalencia con las
antiguas.*

San José de Costa Rica: Imprenta nacional, 1885.

Technical Factors..., 1972, page 137.

In Chile , a unit of mass, about 460 grams.

Technical Factors..., 1972, page 132.

In Cuba and El Salvador, a unit of
mass, = 16* onzas* = 460.00 grams.

Technical Factors..., 1972, pages 140, 155.

In Ecuador, a unit of mass, = 460.00 grams.

Technical Factors..., 1972, page 150.

In the province of Alicante, Spain,
19^{th} century, a unit of liquid capacity for oil = 600
milliliters.¹ In concept, this amount of oil would weigh 1 *libra*.

In the province of Huesca, two units of liquid capacity, one for oil, about 370 milliliters, and one for spirits, about 360 mL.¹ In Navarra, 410 mL.²

Doursther reports (page 236) that the *
libra*of oil in Spain = 1/25 *arroba* = 4 *panillas* = 16 *onzas*,
about 502.6 milliliters.

1. Dirección General del Instituto Geográfico y Estadístico.

*Equivalencias entre las Pesas y Medidas Usadas Antiguamente en las Diversas
Provincias de España y las Legales del Sistema Métrico-Decimal.*

Publicadas de Real Orden.

Madrid: Imprenta de la Dirección General del Instituto Geográfica y Estadístico,
1886.

2. Juan Alvarez, page 175.

In ancient Rome, a unit of capacity for oil.

Mesure de capacité employée en particulier pour l'huile.
Suétone parle quelque part d'une distribution de dix *librae* d'huile par
personne que fit faire César¹⁷. Il pourrait, sans doute, s'agir de
dix livres en poids, et il est bien certain que le nom de *libra,*
donné à la mesure de capacité, vint du rapport établi avec la livre; mais,
d'autre part, Horace, dans une de ses satires, fait allusion à la coutume où
l'on était à Rome de vendre l'huile dans des mesures en corne¹⁸, et
un passage d'un traité de Galenus nous apprend précisément que ce sont elles qui
constituaient la λίτρα, équivalent du latin *libra,* qu'elles portaient
tracée une division en douze parties du nom d'onces, et il ajoute qu'il a voulu
savoir quel en était le poids.¹⁹ La libra d'huile était équivalente
en volume à l'*hemina.*²⁰ E. Michon.

17. Suet. *Caes.* 38.

18. Horat. *Sat.* II, 2, 61.

19. Galenus, *De compos. medic.* II, 13, VI 13 (*Metro.
script.* t I, p 213); cf. Hultsch, p 111, n. 1.

20. Ibid, p 120.

A measure of capacity especially used for oil. Suetonius
speaks somewhere of a distribution of 10 *libra* of oil per person which
was made by Caesar. It could undoubtedly be a matter of 10 pounds weight, and it is certain that the name *libra,* given to a measure of capacity, came from the established relationship with the libra weight. But on the other
hand Horace, in one of his satires, alludes to the custom at Rome of selling oil
in corn measures, and a passage in a treatise of Galen tells us precisely that
this constitutes the λίτρα, equivalent to the latin *libra*, which bears traces
of being divided into 12 parts, and he added that he wanted to know what the
weight was. The *libra* of oil is equivalent in volume to the *hemina.*

Ch. Daremberg, Edm. Saglio and Edm. Pottier, editors.

*Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines…*, volume 3, part 2, page 1231.

Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie, 1904.

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Last revised: 2 February 2011.