[Thai, สัด] In Thailand, at least as early as the 15th century – 20th century¹, a unit of dry capacity, since 1923, and by the Weights and Measures Act B.E. 2542 (1999) = 20 liters (about 18.16 U.S. dry quarts). This value is often referred to as the standard sat. Abbreviation, st.

A 19th century source² says the sat = 25 kanang, and describes the kanang as “reichlich ½ Liter” (a good half liter), which would make the sat at least 12.5 liters.

Other earlier sources give much smaller values. Simmonds (1892) says the sat is “a grain-measure of Siam, weighing 3 3/8 lbs and holding about 3½ pints.” Alexander (1850) describes it as a measure of “dry capacity, 0.00837 bushels” (295 milliliters) and says that 40 sat equal 1 sesti

1. United Nations, 1966.

2. Nelkenbrecher, 1890. Page 65.

3. Alexander, page 139.


[Malay] In Malaysia, ? – 19th century, a unit of capacity, abut 5 gantang. At present in Malaysia the gantang is a unit of mass used for rice. Five would be about 12.5 kilograms.

sat. I. A measure of capacity for rice; the equivalent of 5 gantang.

Wilkinson, 1902, page 370.

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